목차
서문/ 3

Chapter 01 교육연구와 인과추론
교육연구에서 인과추론의 역사 ············································································· 13
인과추론에 대한 전 세계적 관심 ··········································································· 20
이 책의 개요 ······································································································· 21
더 읽을거리 ········································································································ 23

Chapter 02 이론의 중요성
이론이란 무엇인가? ······························································································ 28
교육학에서의 이론 ······························································································ 32
바우처 이론 ········································································································ 34
어떤 종류의 이론인가? ························································································· 37
더 읽을거리 ········································································································ 38

Chapter 03 인과적 질문을 위한 연구 설계
좋은 연구의 조건 ································································································· 42
인과추론의 조건 ·································································································· 44
인과추론에 대한 과거의 접근 방식 ······································································· 47
인과추론의 핵심 문제 ··························································································· 49
더 읽을거리 ········································································································ 54

Chapter 04 연구자-설계 무선 할당 실험
무선 할당 실험 ··································································································· 60
무선 할당 실험에서의 데이터 분석 ······································································· 67
더 읽을거리 ········································································································ 79

Chapter 05 연구자-설계 무선 할당 실험에서의 이슈들
실험 설계 시 핵심적인 결정 사항 ·········································································· 84
무선 할당 실험의 타당성을 저해하는 요소들 ························································ 92
무선 할당 실험에 대한 피험자들의 저항에 대처하기:인도의 사례 ······················ 97
더 읽을거리 ······································································································ 105

Chapter 06 통계적 검정력과 표본 크기
통계적 검정력 ···································································································· 110
통계적 검정력에 영향을 미치는 요인 ·································································· 122
더 읽을거리 ······································································································ 134

Chapter 07 군집 수준의 무선 할당 실험
확률 절편 다층모형을 활용한 집단 수준의 처치 효과 추정 ································· 141
군집 수준 무선 할당 실험에서의 통계적 검정력 ················································· 151
고정효과 다층모형을 활용한 처치효과 추정 ······················································· 158
더 읽을거리 ······································································································ 165

Chapter 08 자연 실험 연구
자연 실험과 연구자 설계 실험의 비교 ································································ 170
자연 실험의 두 가지 연구 사례 ··········································································· 171
자연 실험 사례 찾기 ··························································································· 180
분석 대상의 범위 선정 문제 ··············································································· 184
자연 실험 연구의 타당도에 영향을 미치는 요인 ················································· 187
더 읽을거리 ······································································································ 199

Chapter 09 회귀 불연속 설계
학급당 학생 수가 학업 성취도에 미치는 영향 ····················································· 204
결과변수와 할당변수의 관계 일반화하기 ···························································· 224
회귀 불연속 설계의 타당성에 대한 추가적인 위협 ·············································· 235
더 읽을거리 ······································································································ 240

Chapter 10 도구변수 추정에 대한 소개
도구변수 분석에 대한 소개 ················································································· 244
교육수준이 시민참여에 미치는 인과적 영향에 대한 OLS 추정치에서 발생하는 편의 ···································································································· 247
도구변수 추정 ···································································································· 255
IVE(도구변수 추정)의 두 가지 주요 가정 ··························································· 264
도구변수 추정치를 얻기 위한 대안적인 방법들 ················································· 267
도구변수 추정 접근의 확장 ················································································· 278
도구변수 탐색 및 방어하기 ················································································· 294
더 읽을거리 ······································································································ 305

Chapter 11 준실험에서 처치 효과를 구하기 위한 도구변수의 활용
“준실험”의 개념 ································································································ 311
준실험에서 처치의 인과효과를 추정하기 위해 도구변수 활용하기 ····················· 312
준실험 맥락에서 도구변수 추정치에 대한 더 깊은 통찰 ······································ 318
회귀 불연속 설계에서의 “불분명함”을 해결하기 위해 도구변수 추정 활용하기 ··· 323
더 읽을거리 ······································································································ 328

Chapter 12 비실험자료로 추정된 처치 효과의 편의 교정
층화 방법을 통해 관측 편의 줄이기 ···································································· 333
회귀분석에서 공변인 직접 통제를 통해 관측 편의 줄이기 ·································· 349
경향점수 접근을 통해 관측 편의 줄이기 ····························································· 354
경향점수 매칭을 활용한 처치 효과 추정 ····························································· 364
실제적인 질문 ···································································································· 372
더 읽을거리 ······································································································ 373

Chapter 13 오랜 탐구로 얻은 방법론적 교훈
확실한 이론을 가져라 ························································································· 378
연구 대상과 관련된 문화, 규칙, 제도를 파악하라 ··············································· 380
반사실(counterfactual)을 이해하라 ································································· 382
선택 편의를 항상 경계하라 ················································································· 383
다양한 결과변수를 사용하라 ·············································································· 385
장기적 영향을 고려하라 ····················································································· 386
하위집단에 대한 효과를 검증하라 ······································································ 387
결과를 정확하게 해석하라 ·················································································· 389
비정상적인 결과에 주목하라 ·············································································· 391
좋은 연구는 언제나 새로운 질문으로 이어진다 ·················································· 392
더 읽을거리 ······································································································ 394

Chapter 14 중요한 교훈과 앞으로의 과제
정책 가이드라인 1:학교 입학을 위한 비용(등록금)을 줄여라 ··························· 399
정책 가이드라인 2:아이들의 일상적인 학교생활을 변화시켜라 ························ 402
정책 가이드라인 3:동기부여를 개선하라 ························································· 406
정책 가이드라인 4:가난한 학생들에게 보다 많은 학교교육 선택지를 제공하라 ············································································ 412
요 약 ················································································································ 415
나가며 ·············································································································· 417

참고문헌 ··········································································································· 418
찾아보기 ··········································································································· 434